Judges adjudicate civil and criminal cases and administer justice in courts of law. Judges preside over federal and provincial courts.
Judges perform some or all of the following duties:
- Preside over courts of law, interpret and enforce rules of procedure and make rulings regarding the admissibility of evidence
- Instruct the jury on laws that are applicable to the case
- Weigh and consider evidence in non-jury trials and decide legal guilt or innocence or degree of liability of the accused or defendant
- Pass sentence on persons convicted in criminal cases and determine damages or other appropriate remedy in civil cases
- Grant divorces and divide assets between spouses
- Determine custody of children between contesting parents and other guardians
- Enforce court orders for access or support
- Supervise other judges and court officers.
Judges may specialize in particular areas of law such as civil, criminal or family law.
- Extensive experience as a lawyer or as a professor of law with continuous membership in the bar association is usually required.
- Membership in good standing with a provincial or territorial law society or bar association is required.
- Judges are appointed by federal or provincial cabinets.
- Those appointed to more senior positions in a court, such as chief justice, usually have experience as judges in that court.
- administrative judge
- appellate court judge
- associate chief justice
- chief justice
- county court judge
- county judge
- Court of Queen’s Bench justice
- deputy justice
- district and surrogate court judge
- district court judge
- family court judge
- federal court justice
- federal court justice – trial division
- Federal Court of Appeal justice
- federal trial court justice
- judge – law
- juvenile court judge
- magistrate court judge
- probate court judge
- provincial court judge
- provincial court of appeal justice
- provincial supreme court justice
- puisne judge
- small claims court judge
- superior court justice
- Supreme Court justice
- Supreme Court of Canada justice
- Tax Court judge
- trial court judge
- youth court judge
- Administrative tribunal judges (See 0411 Government managers – health and social policy development and program administration)
- Citizenship court judges (See 1227 Court officers and justices of the peace)
- Justices of the Peace (See 1227 Court officers and justices of the peace)